Photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells, are the building blocks of solar PV technology. These cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, that have the ability to convert sunlight into electricity through a process known as the photovoltaic effect. When light hits the surface of a solar cell, it excites electrons within the material, causing them to move and create an electric current. This electricity can then be harnessed and used to power electrical devices or be stored in batteries for later use.

Solar PV systems are made up of multiple solar cells connected together to form a solar panel. These panels can be installed on rooftops, open fields, or other suitable locations where they can receive maximum sunlight exposure. The panels are typically mounted at an angle facing the sun to optimize energy production throughout the day. In addition, solar PV systems may also include inverters, which convert the direct current (DC) electricity generated by the panels into alternating current (AC) electricity that can be used in homes and businesses.

One of the key benefits of solar PV technology is its environmental sustainability. Unlike fossil fuels, solar energy is a clean and renewable resource that does not produce harmful greenhouse gas emissions or contribute to air pollution. By investing in solar PV systems, individuals and businesses can reduce their carbon footprint and help combat climate change. In addition, solar energy can help to decrease dependence on finite sources of energy, such as coal and oil, which are becoming increasingly expensive and environmentally damaging to extract and use.

Another advantage of solar PV technology is its versatility and scalability. Solar panels can be installed on a small scale, providing electricity for individual homes or businesses, or on a larger scale, powering entire communities or even cities. In remote areas with limited access to the grid, solar PV systems can provide a reliable source of electricity that is independent of traditional power sources. This can help to increase energy security and resilience in the face of natural disasters or other disruptions to the grid.


While solar PV technology offers many benefits, there are still challenges to its widespread adoption. One of the main barriers is the initial cost of installing solar panels, which can be prohibitive for some individuals and businesses. However, with advancements in technology and government incentives, the cost of solar PV systems is steadily decreasing, making them more affordable and accessible to a wider range of consumers. In addition, improvements in energy storage technology, such as batteries and other energy storage solutions, are helping to address the issue of intermittent sunlight availability and enable solar energy to be used around the clock. In conclusion, solar photovoltaic technology is a promising and sustainable solution to our energy needs. By harnessing the power of the sun, solar PV systems can provide clean and renewable electricity that can help to reduce carbon emissions, promote energy independence, and create a more sustainable future for generations to come. As we continue to invest in and expand the use of solar PV technology, we can work towards a more environmentally friendly and resilient energy system that benefits both people and the planet. Solar photovoltaic power plants have become an increasingly popular solution for providing electricity to off-grid locations. Till date KREDA has installed more than 400 units of PV plants, of capacity between 2.5kWp to 100kWp in different institutions, villages and individual houses.

Because of the scattered nature of the villages there is a huge problem with distribution and transmission through power grid systems. The transmission lines are very long resulting in poor voltage regulation and high distribution losses and also it requires huge capital investment which is financially not feasible. Therefore, KREDA is concentrating on decentralized power generation policy, which would be the best alternative for such rural and far-flung areas/villages of Kargil.

Some of the major achievements of KREDA in the field of Solar Sector are:

  • KREDA in collaboration with Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) and National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) inspected various potential sites in Kargil for development of Solar and Wind Energy. The team has found the sites of Shashithang and Khangral feasible for Wind and Solar energy development respectively.
  • 800 kanal (100 acre) of land at Shashithang and 317 kanal (39 acre) at Khangral has been allotted to KREDA for installation of Wind Mast (for wind) and solar plant by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), Kargil.
  • Completion of installation and commissioning of 350 nos. of 5kWp Solar Roof Top under National Solar Mission.
  • KREDA in its effort has moved on to replace the solar batteries of all the solar photovoltaic plants installed years back during 2011-12 in Kargil and Zanskar regions of Ladakh. This shall be a great occurrence in the history of solar energy installations in Ladakh, as many of the villages where in the solar plants stands installed are still not connected to the grid. The battery life of the solar plants being installed under the Ladakh Renewable Energy initiative is now coming to end so the plants needed new batteries.
  • KREDA has also upgraded some of the existing PV plants in the Rangdum area of Kargil during the year 2022-23, whereunder the PV plants of 37.5 kWp installed one each in the villages of Tashistongday and Juldo were upgraded to 137.5kWp, both. One new PV plant of capacity 30kWp has also been installed in Rangdum/Shaqmakarpo.
  • Some new PV plants have also been installed in the region of Zanskar such as in Zunkul Gonpa, Sani Gonpa Ralakung and Karsha Gonpa.
  • Detailed Project Reports for various other RE works such as Solar water pump for irrigation, solar photovoltaic in off grid and green houses construction have been prepared and submitted through many concerned departments, tenders have been floated and many are on allotment stage.
  • The biggest achievement of KREDA under UT Administration is, 'initiating' of lifting water through solar for irrigation, in the region of Kargil for high heights, the very first being the Latoo Project. The agency has installed a Solar Pumping System of capacity 41 HP for irrigation purpose at Latoo Village in Kargil where under the agency has successfully made the villagers capable of lifting sufficient water to irrigate their fields which earlier were facing draught. The project was inaugurated by the Hon'ble Lieutenant Governor UT Ladakh on 24th of March 2021. Till date KREDA has installed more than 11 nos. of PV pumps for irrigation purpose.

Future/Action Plan:

  • 100% Solarization of Kargil Ladakh.
  • Installation of various capacity solar pumping systems in Kargil for irrigation purpose under KUSUM & other UT schemes.
  • Establishment of a wind farm at Shashithang with an expected capacity of 20 MW.
  • It is expected that the execution of the 5MW Khangral Solar Plant shall also be started soon.
  • Assessment for development of Ultra Mega Capacity (2.5 GW) Solar Projects in Kargil.
  • Submission of a composite project proposal to the MNRE, GoI for development of Small Hydro Projects, upto 10MW.
  • There are several potential developments that could shape the use of solar photovoltaic power plants in off-grid settings in the region of Ladakh. Such as improvements in solar panel efficiency and energy storage systems, could make off-grid solar power more affordable and reliable. There is the need of policy changes that could promote renewable energy and support off-grid development to expand the use of solar photovoltaic power plants in remote areas. Furthermore, there must be collaboration between UT Administration and non-profit organizations or businesses in order to realize the full potential of solar power in off-grid settings.
  • Introduction of retrofitting in shape of insulation in existing Govt. & Pvt. Buildings in Ladakh.

The impact of the solar photovoltaic power plants installed in different areas/villages of Ladakh in off-grid has been significant. These power plants provide clean energy from renewable source, i.e. sun which can help in reducing the public dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate the effects of climate change. The systems do also improve living conditions of the people, support economic development, and enhance quality of life of the rural areas.

Despite these benefits, there are also challenges associated with solar photovoltaic power plants in off-grid settings. One major issue is to replace the battery banks in every 5 years, as the battery does have only 4000-5000 cycles which exhausts in a period of not more than 5 to six years. Secondly, solar power generation is dependent on weather conditions, which can be unpredictable and may limit the reliability of off-grid systems. There are also technical challenges related to maintenance and operation of off-grid solar power plants, particularly in remote or isolated locations of Ladakh. KREDA has trained the local operators for maintenance of the PVs.

Brief Status:

Ground Mounted in Off-Grid:

PV Capacity Ins./Vill 2016-18 2021-22 2022-23 2023-24
  Ground Mounted PVs Cumulative Installed Capacity Ground Mounted PVs Cumulative Installed Capacity Ground Mounted PVs Cumulative Installed Capacity Ground Mounted PVs Cumulative Installed Capacity
2.5 kWp to 100 kWp Institutions 65 nos. 367.5 kWp 32 nos. 448kWp 0 0 11nos. 42kWP
3kWp to 100kWP Villages 28 nos. 1210 kWp 0 0 0 0 9nos. 385kWp

Roof-Top in Off-Grid

PV Capacity Ins./Vill 2016-18
  Roof-Top Cumulative Installed Capacity
5kWp Institutions/Village 350 nos. 1750

Total Cumulative Installed Capacity = 4202.5 kWp